Posts Tagged With: San Fernando history

Movie Night at Lopez Adobe on 22 July!

The City of San Fernando is hosting a movie night at the Lopez Adobe a week from tomorrow, on Friday, 22 July.

The event includes free guided tours of the early 1880s adobe landmark at 6 p.m. with the film presentation of 1939’s Juarez, starring Oscar winners Paul Muni and Bette Davis in this tale based on the French occupation of México during the 1860s.

Muni played Benito Juarez, the Mexican president who was ousted by the French and established his exiled government on the American border at Ciudad Juarez.  Claude Rains, another great actor, played French emperor Napoleon III, Brian Aherne, a fine character actor, performed as the puppet Emperor Maximilian and Davis playing the Belgian-born Empress Carlota.

Lopez Adobe Movie Flyer.7.2016

The cast also includes the great John Garfield as Porfirio Diaz and such veteran performers as Donald Crisp, Gale Sondergaard, and the only Mexican among the main cast, Luis Antonio Dámaso de Alonso, a native of, ironically, Ciudad Juarez, who went by the stage name of Gilbert Roland and who was a silent star before he emerged later as an excellent character actor.

San Fernando City Council member Jaime Soto will discuss the film as part of the event, which is free, so plan on coming out to enjoy the Lopez Adobe and the movie.

For more information, call 818.898.1290.

Categories: California History, Downtown San Fernando, Lopez Adobe, San Fernando History | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Pioneer Society of San Fernando

In April 1913, just shy of forty years since San Fernando’s founding, a group of citizens in the recently incorporated city (1911) gathered to create The Pioneer Society of San Fernando.

A scrapbook in the Lopez Adobe collection contains the handwritten constitution and meeting minutes for the organization, which seems to have existed in the 1930s, but only met infrequently, if the book is the only record of its meetings.

SF Pioneer Society Constitution 1

As was the case with so many of these historical societies that sprung up with increasing frequency in the United States, especially after the American centennial was celebrated in 1876, the object of the Pioneer Society was typical:

to cement the bonds of friendship among the older and former residents of this Valley, to enable them to renew acquaintanceship and to promote that fraternal spirit which should permeate those who have long resided in the same community.

Unlike other similar organizations, however, there was no mention of specific activities or projects, such as saving or marking historic landmarks (although the town was less than four decades old), having regular meetings, publishing historical material, presenting lectures, or having events.

Perhaps this is why the existing record of meetings is spotty!

SF Pioneer Society 1st Mtg Minutes 26Apr13

Among the surnames of those mentioned in the early days of the society were Hubbard, Jenifer, Wright, Maclay, Van Winkle, Webster, and Barclay–all representatives of early families of prominent merchants, farmers and others in town.

Quite a few early members came from the large López family, especially the many daughters of Gerónimo and Catarina.  These include their son-in-law, John T. Wilson, who married Grace López and who was chairperson of the first annual meeting of the society, held at his home on what, funnily enough, was dated as “Sept. 31, 1913.”  Also included were Catarina Millen and her husband William; Ramona Shaug and her husband Charles; Erlinda Alexander and her husband Joseph; and J.C. Villegas, a grandson through the Lopez’s daughter María.

There was a meeting on 30 October 1913 with little business of note conducted and then not again until the end of September 1914, which was equally uneventful.   A gathering of 10 October 1914, though, did feature the election of Catarina López as honorary president of the society and her son-in-law Wilson as 1st vice-president.  Again, though, the agenda was on the light side.

SF Pioneer Society Annual Mtg 31Sep13

The first evidence of an event held by the organization came at the May 1915 meeting, at which a picnic to be held at “Griffith’s park” on 12 June was discussed and committees appointed for “conveyances”, food and refreshments, and a “programme” of toasts and speakers, among other elements.

At the end of September 1916, the next gathering was held, at which the honorary president, presumably Catarina López, was retained, as were the officers.  There was some vague business about tin cups, with no explanation of what they were for, but a “cooperative dinner” was scheduled for late October.

SFPS 10Oct14

Then, it was a few years before any new activity arose, when a meeting of 17 April 1920  was held to arrange for the annual picnic, with committees formed and members appointed, and the date, a holiday preferred, to be selected subsequently.

The organization, as noted above, continued into the 1930s, but with not much happening.  There was a list compiled, sometime in 1930, of society members with names and, in many cases, the date when persons settled in town.  Among the early residents listed were:

Mary Proctor, 1870

John T. Wilson, April 1871

J.C. Maclay, April 1874

C.J. Shaug, July 1874

H.C. Hubbard, March 1875

F.M. Wright, September 1875

SFPS signatures 3Aug30

Of course, Gerónimo and Catarina López were on the list (noted as deceased, having passed away in 1921 and 1918, respectively), but no date of their arrival was given.  The newly married couple did settle at Mission San Fernando, though, in the early 1850s and later established Lopez Station, where today’s Van Norman Reservoir is located.

One of the later pages of the book is dated 3 August 1930 and contains several dozen signatures, perhaps those attending a society picnic.  Names include the Lopez-affiliated John and Grace Wilson; Luisa López McAlohan, who extensively remodeled the López Adobe in the mid-1920s; Catarina (Kate) and William Millen, whose wife Catarina must’ve been there, as she was the last López to live in the adobe up until 1961; Ramona Shaug; and the Brookses, descended through the Villegas line; as well as such surnames as Maclay, Hubbard, Fraisher, Webster, Wright, Van Winkle, Folger and more.

SFPS member list ca 1930 2

The organization eventually died off, as so many do, but a later group, the Friends of the López Adobe, emerged a few decades later, in the 1960s, to save the historic structure and which is still around today, keeping up the spirit of its predecessor.


Categories: Catarina Lopez, Catarina Lopez de Millen, Geronimo Lopez, Lopez Adobe, Lopez History, Louisa Lopez de McAlohan, Pioneer Society of San Fernando, Ramona Lopez de Shaug, San Fernando founders, San Fernando History, San Fernando people | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

An 1866 Map from the Lopez Adobe Collection

It’s in pretty sorry shape overall, but a scrapbook repurposed to hold an atlas from Augustus Mitchell’s collection of maps from 1866 included one of California, a detail of which is reproduced here, is in the Lopez Adobe collection.

The map shows the Los Angeles region at a crucial time.  The Civil War had just ended and the area was poised to undergo its first boom, as migrants came in larger numbers than before.

It was an opportune time because heavy flooding in 1861-62 (El Niño) followed by two years of severe drought (La Niña–ring a bell?) ravaged the cattle industry and drove land prices down.


The boom really took off in 1867, the year after the appearance of the map, and continued until 1875 when it went bust in a big way.  Of course, San Fernando was created at the end of that period as a railroad town along the line of the Southern Pacific being built north from Los Angeles.

Among the interesting features of the map, which was hand-colored in each printed copy, are that the local counties included Santa Barbara (blue), San Bernardino (pink), Los Angeles (yellow) and San Diego (blue).  Ventura, Riverside and Orange counties were off in the future.

Note, too, that the San Gabriel Mountains are referred to here as the San Bernardinos (now the chain east of Cajon Pass; the San Gabriels were often referred to in this era as the Sierra Madre range).

The dotted lines represent the two main roads in the region.  East from Los Angeles through San Gabriel and San Bernardino was the road leading out towards Arizona.  From the rudimentary harbor at San Pedro to Los Angeles was roughly today’s Interstate 110.  Then from Los Angeles north was San Fernando Road leading up to the San Fernando Mission and then up San Fernando (Newhall) Pas and towards Tejon Pass and the Central Valley.

It’s also interesting to see the San Gabriel River terminating at the Los Angeles River.  This is the channel of what is now the Rio Hondo.  In the winter of 1867-68, which featured torrential rainfall, the San Gabriel changed to its present course.

Most of the Channel Islands, the San Juan Capistrano and San Gabriel missions, Elizabeth Lake and Thompson’s stage stop near it, Santa Susana Pass, Point Fermin and Point Dume, Cajon Pass, and two unfamiliar names to most–“Las Yerbas,” meaning the Yorba Ranch near modern Corona, and Las Flores, or where Camp Pendleton is now–are notable locales.

The Lopez Adobe collection has a great many interesting items and this map is one example!

Categories: California History, Lopez Adobe, Los Angeles maps, Mission San Fernando, Newhall Pass, San Fernando History, San Fernando Pass, San Fernando Road | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Lopez Adobe Photos and The Kester Ranch in Van Nuys

Wong Kester Ranch 1896

Another very interesting recent find in the Lopez Adobe photo collection is the above cabinet card portrait taken in 1896 by Los Angeles photographer Elkanah P. Tresslar.  It shows a young Chinese man standing next to a small side table covered by a patterned throw with tasseled ends and on which is a small vase with flowers.

The man wears traditional Chinese clothing, including a large long-sleeved tunic, trousers and slippers.  Yet, he also wears a smart, contemporary Western-style hat, holds an unbrella in his left hand and, in his right hand, resting on the edge of the table, is a cigar.  The combination of the new and old, Chinese and American, is striking and certainly deliberate.

Wong & 2 Chinese boys

At the bottom over the Tresslar’s stamped name and address is an inscription that reads “Wong / Chinese cook at Kester Ranch / (Now Van Nuys)  1896.”  The photo is mounted on a photo album page which also has two pasted-down snapshots of Chinese boys, one appearing to be about eight or nine years old and the other perhaps a couple of years older than the other.

Chinese boy in street

The younger of the two stands in the middle of a wide, dirt street and wears similar clothing to Wong, a dark-colored tunic and trousers, though he wears Western shoes.  Held in both hands in front of him is a woven basket, almost as if he was carrying a lunch in it.  In the distance is an intersection with portions of buildings, one of which has a “Fontella Cigars” ad on the side.

Chinese boy by pole

The older stands next to a wooden power pole and wears a traditional Chinese tunic and skullcap, though his trousers appear to be Western and he also sports lace-up boots.  In his right hand he holds a foot-long or so piece of string at the end of which is an oval object, perhaps a piece of food or a stone.  Behind him is a small side street and part of a brick building.  In fact, the pole and building might even be the one in the distance in the other photo of the younger boy.

More than likely these two snapshots were taken at Los Angeles’s Chinatown, which was on the site of today’s Union Station.  The original Chinese neighborhood, from the 1860s to the 1880s, was the infamous Calle de los Negros, a narrow, adobe-lined street to the southeast of the Plaza and which was where the horrific massacre of nineteen Chinese men (one a teenage boy) took place in 1871.  When the calle was rerouted into Los Angeles Street, the Chinese moved east across Alameda Street to a new area.

The photo with the younger boy could well be on the west side of Alameda looking northeast towards the Chinese enclave.  As Union Station was in the planning and construction stages, Chinatown moved to its current location to the north and west.

What is unknown is what relation the two boys might have had to Wong, the Kester Ranch cook, or how the album page came to the Lopez Adobe collection.  As to the Kester Ranch, here is some information about it.

John Hamilton Kester was born in Boston, New York, southeast of Buffalo in 1828.  He remained there until at least the mid-1850s, when he migrated to northern California and settled in Napa County, specifically in Yountville in the heart of today’s famed wine-making area.  Kester became a wheat farmer and miller and lived later in Tehama County near Red Bluff and in Orland at Colusa County, both in the upper Central Valley.  At the end of his life he resided in San Francisco.

Apparently, one of his friends from New York was Isaac N. Van Nuys, who was born in 1836 and who hailed from West Sparta, about fifty miles west of Kester’s hometown of Boston.  When Van Nuys left New York and came to California in 1865, he settled at Yountville, where Kester still lived.

Within a few years, however, Van Nuys visited Los Angeles and took a liking to the area, buying an interest in the recently established San Fernando Farm Homestead Association, which, in July 1869, acquired 60,000 acres of Rancho ex-Mission San Fernando (the $115,000 was used by former governor Pío Pico to build his three-story Pico House hotel on the Plaza in Los Angeles).  The principal figure in the association was Isaac Lankershim, who was joined by Van Nuys.  Their relationship was cemented when Van Nuys married Lankershim’s daughter, Susan.

The Lankershim-Van Nuys partnership initially focused heavily on the raising of sheep, but drought conditions led them to pull back on that emphasis and they sold their stock of 25,000 animals in 1882.  Instead, the impetus moved towards large-scale wheat farming operations through the Los Angeles Farm and Milling Association, which comprised thousands of acres of fertile land that generally produced high yields.  Lankershim also built a flour mill in downtown Los Angeles and the enterprise flourished.


Kester appears to have been given an option to acquire some 13,000 acres about 1878 and began work on his new ranch.  But, as reported in the Los Angeles Herald, in September of that year, a massive brush fire of up to 3,000 acres, suspected as an arson fire, broke out at Tujunga and spead to the lower part of the San Fernando Valley and the ranches of Lankershim and Kester, devouring wheat fields.  Kester and fifty men saved a good deal of property from destruction by burning and plowing a circle around grain, machinery and livestock.

Still, in June 1879, a Herald article in the form of a “Letter from San Fernando” observed that expectations for a good season in wheat farming could be seen by the work underway at Kester’s ranch, described as “over seven thousand acres of wheat and six thousand acres of barley.”  Meanwhile, “the adjoining ranch of Van Nuys contains five thousand acres of wheat and a large patch of barley.”   Another was the ranch of “Paten & Smith.” likely the attorneys George H. Smith and George S. Patton, Sr., whose son was the famed World War II general.

Kester registered to vote in the San Fernando township in 1879, listing himself as a farmer.  But, by the time the 1880 federal census was conducted, he was residing in Tehama County.  Still, an August 1881 Herald notice stated that “Mr. Kester, of the San Fernando valley, finished threshing his wheat on Wednesday, the crop yielding in the neighborhood of 30,000 sacks,” indicating he may have been owner of the ranch while not residing on it.

It also appears the size of the property dropped down to 7,000 acres, based on a May 1883 article describing the ranch, based on information provided by its superintendent, but the Herald referred to the property as the “Kester” ranch.  In September, the paper stated

A contemporary speaks in the superlative degree of the Kester Ranch in San Fernando with its crop of 40,000 sacks.  As Kester never had a ranch here, and has not been in the county since 1879 a reference to him appears a little antiquated to say the least.

Obviously, Kester did have some interest in the property, as noted in the 1878-1881 references above, but he clearly distanced himself from the ranch not long afterward.  Just what happened when is not clear, but, in 1890, a boiler explosion on the property made note of the location as “the Kester ranch of I.N. Van Nuys.”  This makes it appear as if Kester sold his interest to Van Nuys sometime after summer 1881.  When the photo of Wong, the ranch cook, was taken in 1896, it is obvious he was serving in that capacity for ranch workers.

San Fernando Farm Homestead Map Leonis Adobe Plummer House CSUN University Library SFV History Digital Library

A portion of a map of the lands held by the San Fernando Farm Homestead Association, recorded in 1888.  From the Leonis Adobe and Plummer House and part of the San Fernando Valley History Digital Library project of the California State University, Northridge University Library.

As to the fate of the Kester Ranch, it and the several other distinct properties within the Lankershim-Van Nuys empire were sold in September 1909 to the Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by Los Angeles Times publisher and real estate titan, Harry Chandler and comprised of such capitalists as Van Nuys, Moses H. Sherman, Chandler’s father-in-law and Times owner Harrison Gray Otis, Henry Huntington, and others.

Not surprisingly, these wealthy and well-connected men were well aware of the coming of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, which would transform the San Fernando Valley and other areas of the region with unbounded (well, until recently) supplies of water from the Owens Valley of eastern California.


In 1910, the firm announced the “Sale of the Century” (which was saying something, given that the 20th century was still in its childhood) and the above ad from the Herald indicated part of a massive auction was to be held at the Kester Ranch in early November, at which 2000 horses and mules and much more were to be sold.

The development of the several ranches of the Lankershim-Van Nuys holdings for towns, smaller farm and orchard sites and other elments was on and the Kester Ranch became part of the community of Van Nuys.

Categories: Isaac Lankershim, Isaac Van Nuys, John H. Kester, Kester Ranch, Lopez Adobe, Los Angeles Farm and Milling Association, Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company, San Fernando Farm Homestead Association, San Fernando History, Van Nuys | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Porter Land and Water Association

Porter Land and Water pamphlet

Cover of a circa 1889 promotional pamphlet for the Porter Land and Water Company, from the collection of the Lopez Adobe.

Another great recent find in the Lopez Adobe collection was an original circa 1889 pamphlet for the Porter Land and Water Company, which subdivided a 20,000-acre section of the former Rancho ex-Mission San Fernando that was formerly the ranch of George K. Porter.

In 1874, Robert Maclay created the townsite of San Fernando during the Los Angeles region’s first boom period, which began in the late 1860s and brought thousands of new residents to the area.  Other towns that sprung up during this period included Pasadena, Pomona, and Artesia, but, by 1876, the boom went bust and most of these communities stagnated for a decade.

But, with the arrival of a direct transcontinental railroad, the Santa Fe line, from the east in 1885, a new boom arose and this one was far larger than its predecessor.  As new arrivals poured in, more land was subdivided and placed on sale for steeply-rising prices.  George K. Porter jumped at the opportunity and launched the Porter Land and Water Company, capitalized at over $500,000.



San Francisco Chronicle, 3 June 1887.

He took almost all of the stock, with a few partners investing $1,000 each for a single share.  These included Jesse Yarnell, a newpaper publisher; Dan McFarland, who invested heavily in the Boom of the 1880s; Lehman T. Garnsey, a new arrival in the area and an investor in what became Burbank; Edward A. Forrester,  a real estate developer and future county supervisor; and John B. Baskin, who became the sales agent for the new firm.

Baskin immediately began an aggressive marketing and promotional campaign for the subdivision of San Fernando-area land, doing so in a hyper-competitive environment in which almost every new project featured the finest soil, the balmiest climate, ample water and amenties galore.

One of the frequently-mentioned elements of the company’s holdings was the fact that the remains of Mission San Fernando were surrounded by the tract and the usual comparisons were made between the “days of old” represented by the crumbling walls of the mission and the progress represented in the Boom of the 1880s.


Los Angeles Herald, 3 July 1887.

The first advertisements were published in local newspapers on 3 July and sales commenced two days later, including town lots as well as parcels ranging from 10 to 640 acres.  Baskin hired William Hammond Hall, California State Engineer and an expert on water, to develop a comprehensive irrigation plan for water derived from local creeks (such as Pacoima) and springs.  Hall also offered his opinion that Porter Land and Water controlled “really first-rate valley lands for cultivation, with soils not to be surpassed for fertility” as well as “in a neighborhood  whose climate is well-adapted to the best class of agricultural, horticultural and vineyard productions usual in this country.”

On 22 July, it was announced that the firm bought a lot in San Fernando from Martin Murnane for a hotel–this became the 70-room Porter Hotel, though it was originally the San Fernando Mission Hotel.  Two days later, Baskin published a “card” in the Los Angeles Herald with a statement from long-time local residents attesting to the fact that “the oranges produced on said ranch are as fine as any we have seen in the State, and we further swear that scale bugs do not, and never have existed on any trees on the ranch.”

The signatories included Porter’s ranching partner, Henry C. Hubbard; Benigno Pico, who was married to Edward Forrester’s sister in a rare inter-ethnic marriage of the time; Southern Pacific station agent, W.H. Griswold; John T. Wilson; and Wilson’s father-in-law, Gerónimo López.  Lopez’s 25 years of residency in the area (meaning his arrival was in 1861 or 1862) was by far the longest of the eight signatories, who swore their statement before San Fernando’s justice of the peace, T.S. Smith.


Los Angeles Herald, 12 October 1887

In late August, the biggest sale registered by Porter Land and Water was 1,500 acres in the center of the tract to Theodore Wisendanger, a native of Switzerland, who came to Los Angeles in 1884, just before the boom erupted, for some $250,000.  Wisendanger, upon his arrival in the area, taught briefly at a little new and unknown Methodist college called U.S.C. and then dove headlong into real estate, developing some 3,000 acres and building hundreds of houses.  He also was a pioneer in building apartments, amassing a portfolio of some forty buildings, though he died poor and almost forgotten in 1919.

The Porter Land and Water Company even tried to sell stock on the new Los Angeles Stock Exchange, offering initially for the $1,000 per share price assigned in the company’s formation.  As the boom moved into 1888, the offered value rose to nearly $1,200, though it is unknown how many investors joined in.  The company did add two directors, enlarging its number to seven, that year.

As 1888 dawned, the company was offering its land for $50 an acre, with a 40-acre lot being the most commonly marketed and sold plot.  An upfront cash payment of 1/3 was expected, with the remainder due either in one or two years at 6% interest.  In February, it was announced that a little under 500 acres of the property was being planted to oranges to demonstrate the fertility of the soil, the absence of pests, and the abundance of water that would make cirtus raising a profitable endeavor on the firm’s lands.


Los Angeles Herald, 23 March 1888.

Besides 58,000 orange trees, as claimed in a March advertisement, figs and olives were represented as flourishing on the Porter property.  In later years, the olive groves and production facilities at Sylmar would become widely-known.  In the ad, Baskin enlisted Eduard Germain, one of Los Angeles’ biggest fruit dealers, quoted as saying that the fruits of the company’s tract were “the prettiest and cleanest in the county” and that “this ranch is the coming fruit section of the county.”

On 6 April 1888, Porter Land and Water offered a “grand excursion” from Los Angeles to the tract with the subsidized train ride, tour and lunch only costing 75 cents.  The recently planted orange grove was touted as the largest in the world.  The Herald‘s coverage included the wording of a statement that many of the excursionists signed about the “excellent manner in which we were treated” as well as “the fine appearance of the country and the extensive improvements being made” which “prove that the land of the Company has not been praised near what it deserves.”

Porter Land and Water map 2

The fold-out map of Porter Land and Water Company holdings from the 1889 pamphlet.

As the year wound towards a close, the boom began to fade and problems ensued within Porter Land and Water.  On the latter point, a bookkeeper, Thomas Gaskins, forged some company checks payable to himself and skipped town, leaving his teenaged wife and infant son behind.  He was captured in San Francisco and brought back to Los Angeles for criminal proceedings, though the outcome was not located.

Early in 1889, John B. Baskin was taken to court by the company.  Baskin, it was noted was paid $100 per month and given a 6% commission on all sales as part of his work as agent, but Porter Land and Water charged that Baskin engineered “pretended” sales and collected his commission on others that were never fully realized or perfected.  The company alleged that Baskin, who received some $15,000 in salary and fees in ten months (a very large sum), also had promissory notes against the firm for other work, charged the firm $2,000 to a personal account, and had property put in the name of his wife and then transferred to him.  The total of alleged false fees and other income was some $6,000.  The firm demanded that Baskin only receive the total of his salary and commission on actual, realized and perfected sales.  While the matter did proceed in court, no outcome was located, though it may be that there was an out-of-court settlement.

By 1889, the firm had a new agent, J.C. Byram, whose name appears on the pamphlet pictured here.  Byram, however, could do little to turn around sales, when the boom was bust, and the national and local economies were heading towards a depression, which broke out in 1893.  Additionally, much of the 1890s found the region in a severe drought.

1898 Herald article

Los Angeles Herald, 23 June 1898.

An 1898 Herald article on another company lawsuit, this one against Porter, his company, and officers and directors in Porter Land and Water, was headlined “Relic of Boom Days.”  It was just a decade removed, but the glory days of the boom were already worthy of “relics” by the late Nineties.

The suit was brought by 26 “small stockholders” in the firm and they alleged that as “the years rolled by and the land did not sell,” Porter and associated borrowed $100,000 from a bank on the company’s credit, with Porter being paid some $45,650 out of the borrowed money for 734 acres that he transferred to the company.  The plaintiffs argued that the 734 acres had to be sold before Porter was paid.  The 26 stockholders won their case at the local Superior Court, but the judgment was reversed on appeal by the state Supreme Court.  The affair shows the low state of the company as the 1890s ended.

Porter Land and Water map detail

Detail from the circa 1889 map from the Porter Land and Water Company pamphlet showing the townsite of San Fernando at right, the Mission San Fernando at the center, the location of the Andres Pico Adobe at lower center, and the Rinaldi orange grove towards the upper left.

Five years later, in 1903, Porter sold his firm and transferred remaining acreage in the San Fernando area to a new company, the San Fernando Mission Land Company, of which he was a minority owner, holding 10% of the stock.  Three years after that, in 1906, he died, without much of the property he owned and developed being sold, though it was not long afterward that a new rush of settlers came to the San Fernando Valley, which was the terminus, from 1913, of the Los Angeles Aqueduct.

Categories: California History, Citrus history, George K. Porter, Geronimo Lopez, Lopez Adobe, Lopez History, Mission San Fernando, Porter Hotel, Porter Land and Water Company, San Fernando founders, San Fernando History | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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